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The normal question about this topic would be: Can a classical computer implement a quantum computer? But now I wonder the exact opposite: can a quantum computer implement a classical one? Can we say that classical computation is a subset of quantum computing?

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  • $\begingroup$ Isn't the question whether one class of computer can tractably implement the other? I believe that a classical computer can simulate a quantum computer, but the complexity just gets bad very rapidly in the worst cases. $\endgroup$ – Ben Crowell Feb 16 '18 at 16:01
  • $\begingroup$ Your current computer is using tons of qubits without taking advantage of any of the special quantum features. $\endgroup$ – Erik Eidt Feb 24 '18 at 21:37
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Yes, it is perfectly possible to run a quantum computer as a classical one, simply by keeping all the qubits in 0 or 1 and deciding not to use the capability to place them on superpositions of those states or entangle them to each other.

To be a bit more precise, the computation complexity class BQP (of problems that can be efficiently solved in a quantum computer) contains as a subset the class BPP (of problems that can be efficiently solved in a classical computer, if you allow for a finite probability of success) which itself contains the class P (of problems that can be efficiently solved in a classical computer). The Wikipedia pages for those complexity classes have more detail on those inclusions.

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  • $\begingroup$ I think OP may be referring to the issue where you can only use reversible gates, e.g. fully quantum computers cannot use AND gates. $\endgroup$ – knzhou Feb 16 '18 at 15:38
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    $\begingroup$ @knzhou Reversible computing is Turing complete and can be happily implemented in quantum computers. (In more detail: quantum computers cannot implement 'standard' (lossy) AND gates, but they have no problem with the reversible-computing equivalent $(x,y,z)\mapsto (x,y,z\oplus(x\otimes y))$.) $\endgroup$ – Emilio Pisanty Feb 16 '18 at 16:25

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