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This question already has an answer here:

The simplest answer is that the protuberances on the rough surfaces have inelastic collisions on each other and thus have a macroscopic tendency to impede motion.

Is there any more comprehensive and complete theory about how friction rises?

Is f=μN a theoretical conclusion or an approximate experimental result?

Why is the magnitude of friction LINEARLY proportional to the normal force exerted on the contact surface?

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marked as duplicate by John Rennie, valerio, Jon Custer, Chris, sammy gerbil Feb 5 '18 at 14:54

This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.

  • $\begingroup$ Ultimately it's all about electrodynamics. $\endgroup$ – Rexcirus Feb 4 '18 at 15:46
  • $\begingroup$ $F=\mu N$ is purely empirical. $\endgroup$ – valerio Feb 4 '18 at 15:54
  • $\begingroup$ if you google "microscopic view of friction" a number of references come up $\endgroup$ – anna v Feb 4 '18 at 17:57

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