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Glass is solid and transparent material for light visible for human. Is there any other materials that also "transparent" for other frequency ranges of radiation? For example, X-rays, radio emission. Or maybe it`s still glass?

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How a material interacts with light is controlled by electrons.

The defining characteristic of a metal is that it has electrons that are free to move. This is why metals conduct electricity. Electrons can carry heat, so metals are also good thermal conductors.

Light is an oscillating electromagnetic field. Electromagnetic fields exert forces on electrons. When light hits a metal, it makes the electrons vibrate. The light is absorbed. The vibrating electrons emit new light. This is the basis of reflection.

Nonconductors have electrons bound to atoms. These electrons can vibrate, but not at all frequencies. The frequencies at which they can vibrate depend on the particular chemical bonds in the material. If the frequency of light matches the frequency at which electrons can vibrate, the light is absorbed. This is the basis of colored glass.

Diamond is a material with one of the most unusual optical properties. Diamond has very strong bonds. Diamond is made from carbon, which is one of the lightest atoms. This combination makes all vibrational frequencies very high. Because of this, diamond does not absorb low frequency light. It is transparent to all frequencies up to ultraviolet.

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It really depends on the wavelength. Conventional "glass" itself is transparent for a wide range (~ 360 nm - 1.5 µm). There are other materials which can e.g. be used for longer wavelengths like $Al_2O_3$ or ZnSe. Some of these materials, like $Al_2O_3$ can be obtained in crystalline quality, so they technically don't qualify as glass, but from an optics perspective they are transparent. For shorter wavelengths like X-rays and shorter, most materials become transparent.

In general, I recommend looking different materials and their absorption coefficients up at refractiveindex.info

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Yes there are many depending on what frequency you are interested in.

Every substance interacts with a characteristic absorption spectrum of light frequencies. Light or (EM radiation) that doesn't interact with a substance passes through it.

Most people are familiar with x-rays due to their medical applications, for example.

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  • $\begingroup$ Well sure but what material can be used to make an x-ray lens? $\endgroup$
    – DanielSank
    Nov 24, 2017 at 5:42
  • $\begingroup$ compound refractive x-ray lens typically use materials with very low atomic number such as beryllium or lithium. These have to be designed for a particular monochromatic frequency, though. There are other ways to do it though. $\endgroup$
    – JMLCarter
    Nov 24, 2017 at 15:43

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