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11D Supergravity is a field theory, while the varieties of superstring theories is not. Why would M-theory include theories of two different framework?

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  1. The five superstring theories correspond uniquely to the five possible SUGRA theories in 10d as their low-energy effective theories.

  2. The five SUGRA theories can be obtained by various styles of dimensional reduction from the unique 11d SUGRA theory.

Therefore, M-theory is conjectured to be a "stringy" 11d theory that can be reduced to the five superstring theories in similar limits and that has 11d SUGRA as its low-energy effective theory.

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