What I'm specifically looking for here are resources or maybe even sequences of books that take me from introductory level all the way up to kinda advanced level classical mechanics. I'm just kinda confused on where to start and where to learn from.
I will try to organize it in a clear and fast way. I don't know wether you are a high school or a undergrad student. Here i will assume that you have all the basic math and physics from High school.
Basic-Level Classical Mechanics
Physics: In basic level mechanics we talk about studying Newtonian Mechanics without the explicit use of differential equations knowledge. You must learn about movement, forces, rotations, oscillations, energy, and so on. Recommended resources for this: Books like Paul A. Tipler for basic physics, or H. Nussenzveig Moysés books. Math Needed: What you'll need here is mostly calculus of one real variable, the very basics of linear algebra and of course the fundamentals of math like trigonometry, vector algebra and so on. A separated math book in this level is not mandatory, but i would recommend Calculus from Tom Apostol.
Math: Here you'll start using a more advanced math in what you have studied previously. You must learn differential equations (and hence a little bit more of linear algebra). I would recommend again Apostol, this time for Linear Algebra. As for differential Equations you might want to follow Boyce DiPrima. Physics: Basically what you'll be doing here is studying the subjects you've been introduced to in basic level with a more advanced math. For this stage i only know of online courses, o i would recommend from Mit Opencourseware.
Physics: Here we are going to start talking about Lagrange and Hamilton mechanics. It is recommended that, at this level, you are already familiar with multivariable calculus and partial derivatives in mathematics. Unfortunately i'm not aware of a specific boom for this. I'll do a quick research and soon it will be added here.