# Direction of dipole moment

How do you find out the direction of the dipole moment in a charge distribution? For example a sphere with charge density $\rho$ in northern hemisphere and $-\rho$ at southern hemisphere? How can you think about the direction in general?

To go beyond that, then you need to step away from hand-waving statements and actually calculate the dipole moment through its definition, $$\mathbf p = \int \mathbf r \, \rho(\mathbf r)\mathrm d\mathbf r,$$ normally through direct and explicit integration.