I was researching for a project and came across this question. Maybe this is a bit too broad? How might solar energy work on Mars? Would it be sufficient to sustain a colony?
Mercury: Temperature ranges from -300F to 800F. Either you will get too much or too little sunlight.
Venus: The hottest planet in our solar system. More than 850F. And the pressure in 90 times. And full of dense clouds, not sure if sunlight reaches the surface. Maybe over the clouds somewhere if we manage to hold our drones/satellites with solar panels there... it might work. But a lot of other complications will be on the way.
Mars: Low atmospheric pressure. Extremely cold and gets around 2.25 percent less sunlight than earth. Maybe the only other planet where solar panels are possible but probably work with 40-45% efficiency (please do your own calculation). Imagine putting solar panels in Antarctica, I think the scenario would be somewhat comparable but it would be worse on Mars.
Earth: Some people say that solar panels are tailor-made for this planet.
P.S. Maybe look into solar panels on Mars vs on Earth?