A couple years ago I have estimated that the heat generated by air conditining units is larger than the heat from the sun.
So I assumed that there is about 1 kW of solar radiation per m². In the urban area of St. Louis, there are 2150000 people on 2392 km². The solar radiation therefore causes 2392 GW.
Assuming that every person has an AC unit and that it consumes 3 kW, this would result in 6450 GW due to AC units, being a multiple of the heat coming from the sun.
The estimates are likely wrong. But it seems that AC units have a rather severe impact on the heat in a city. Wouldn't it make more sense to rather use white painted buildings and other passive cooling techniques instead of using so much AC?