Let us take as an example proton proton scattering at LHC. The scatter is calculated to happen within a known volume, and the objective is to measure all outgoing particles' energy and momentum, and detectors are built around the interaction region in order to achieve this total knowledge of each interaction ( hopefully)
Here is the CMS detetor at LHC.
The silicon trackers catch all charge particles by the tracks they leave, and the momentum is measured by their curvature in the magnetic field. Neutral particles leave no track and have to be caught by special detectors. The photons deposit all their energy in the crystal electromagnetic calorimeter. The charged tracks also leave their trace but can be identified by the entering track, for electrons, which will also deposit all their energy in the electromagnetic calorimeter. The rest of the tracks create showers in the hadronic calorimeter, except for the muons which go all the way through to the muon detectors.
A hadronic signal in the hadron calorimeter which does not have a track input, is a neutron.
Gluons can only be identified in jets of charged and neutral paricles, as gluon jets.
Here is a candidate event for a higgs boson:
CMS-PHO-EVENTS-2011-010-9 - Small, Medium, Large, Original
Real CMS proton-proton collision events in which 4 high energy electrons (green lines and red towers) are observed. The event shows characteristics expected from the decay of a Higgs boson but is also consistent with background Standard Model physics processes.
The red towers are in the electromagnetic calorimeter, and the association with the green charged tracks defines them as electrons. One must realize that a lot of computing using the data in the detectors is necessary to see these event displays.
You can check on a number of other events.