I am interesting to find descriptions of the series of experiments that Newton made for determining the laws of motion. In English of course.
Law 1) it was Galileo that pointed out that objects resist changes in motion. It is hard to get something heavy to start moving, and it is hard to stop something heavy when it is moving. If I remember right Galileo mentions "resilience to changes in motion", whereas Newton used "persistence" in their motions", although I'm not sure of the exact quotes without spending half a day trying to find them.
Law 2) again Newton based this law on work done by others whom he mentions in the Scholium of Corollary VI, along with the experiment by Sir Christopher Wren. Take two spherical pendulums and tie their strings (say on a beam) so that the spheres just touch. Their is a lot of information that you can get out of simply lifting and dropping balls of different sizes onto each other. In particular; if you take a ball half the mass of the other and let it drop then it seems to have only half the effect of an equal mass dropped from the same height. I encourage you to play with this toy, as you can learn a lot from using different masses heights and materials.
Law 3) was entirely Newtons thinking. If I my quote James Clerk Maxwell here. "The fact that a magnet draws iron towards it was noticed by the ancients, but no attention was paid to the force with which the iron attracts the magnet. Newton, however, by placing the magnet in one vessel and the iron in another, and floating both vessels in water so as to touch each other, showed experimentally that as neither vessal was was able to propel the other along with itself through the water, the attraction of the iron on the magnet must be equal and opposite to that of the magnet on the iron, both being equal to the pressure between the two vessels." There is another quote that again I cannot find but goes something like this; "Newton used walnut shells filled with different materials, wool, glass, lodestone, iron", to test attractions, ... "Newton said that it cannot be denied that the iron pulls on the loadstone" the same as the loadstone pulls on the magnet.