I'm in 10th grade and a beginner in the amazing world of quantum physics, I want to become a mathematician but I like quantum mechanics as well. The eigenvalues in Schrödinger wave equation used to describe the motion on electrons and other fundamental particles. Are they mathematically related to the solutions of partial differential equations (eigenfunctions) or to the eigenvalues of a square matrix (eigenvectors and eigenvalues)?
Both. There's essentially no difference at all between those two settings, when seen from the perspective of abstract linear algebra: in both, you have some vector space $V$ and some linear operator $\mathcal L:V\to V$, and you look for members $v\in V$ of the vector space which obey a property of the form $$ \mathcal Lv=\lambda v, \tag 1 $$ where $\lambda$ is known as the eigenvalue. The vector $v$ is normally known as an eigenvector, but it may also be appropriate to use the terms eigenstate or eigenfunction ─ which are nevertheless completely synonymous with eigenvector. If $V$ is finite-dimensional, then the eigenvalue equation $(1)$ can be phrased in terms of square matrices and row vectors, but if $\mathcal L$ is some differential operator (as in the PDE form of the time-independent Schrödinger equation) then that is no longer possible, but that fact does not detract in any way from the abstract properties of the eigenvalue relation.