If sun suddenly disappears then it will take 8 minutes for earth to move out of its orbit due to the presence of gravitational waves.

What happens if proton in an atom suddenly disappears, will the electron too takes time to move out of its orbital or will it take place instantaneously?

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    $\begingroup$ There are electromagnetic waves. $\endgroup$ – The Photon Aug 17 '17 at 17:15

It will take some time until the electron "feels" that the proton disappeared. There is no force which acts instantaneously because the vacuum speed of light $c$ sets a limit for the speed with which information can be transported. This means that information cannot travel faster than $c$. In particular, the information that the proton has disappeared will not reach the electron instantaneously.

  • $\begingroup$ Sir, what if the atom is in some medium whose proton is disappeared, will the information travels at the speed of light in vacuum or at the speed of light in that medium? $\endgroup$ – Kawin M Aug 17 '17 at 17:48
  • $\begingroup$ As can be seen from the electromagnetic wave equation the medium has an influence, so the speed of light in the medium is important. $\endgroup$ – Virft Aug 17 '17 at 19:59

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