# Origin of the replica trick

The replica trick consists of the formula:

$$\overline{\log Z}=\lim_{n\rightarrow0}\frac{1}{n}\log\overline{Z^{n}} \tag{1}$$

where $Z$ is the partition function of a system and the overbar denotes an average (see for example The "replica trick" initial formula?).

When was this trick used for the first time? Is there an original reference?

• Possibly better on History of Science and Mathematics. I (or another mod) can migrate it if you would like. Just comment to that effect. – dmckee Aug 1 '17 at 14:44
• @dmckee Can we leave it here for a few days? If it does not get responses I'll request to migrate it. – becko Aug 1 '17 at 15:09