So one interesting idea in physics is that at higher energy levels, fundamental forces fuse together (ex: Electricity and Magnetism into Electromagnetism) and (Eletromagnetism + Weak Force -> Electroweak Theory) ... What I was curious about is what happens if you go the opposite way. Is there an energy density below which say just the Electric Force, is more succinctly described as 2 different forces?


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I think what you should look into are effective field theories in condensed matter physics, and the phenomenon of quasi-particles. For example in special systems it is possible to have fractional electric charge.

At a technical level, the way to describe the unification of these forces is that a symmetry group is spontaneously broken. For example one of the original proposals (Georgi-Glashow) is that SU(5) is broken into SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1). As you go down in energy we think more in terms of effective field theories. For example the SU(3) color theory (chromodynamics) can be approximated by SU(2) isospin which does a pretty good job of describing protons and neutrons and some of their cousins. There are tons of effective field theories out there for all sorts of scenarios!





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