What near visible wavelengths will propagate through the atmosphere, and more specifically clouds and haze, to provide useful high resolution (~1ft?) imagery from space?
See Which frequencies of IR and UV light best penetrate the atmosphere with least interference? for transmission by wavelength.
But pretty much nothing (short of radio) will go through clouds there is too much scattering even if the wavelengths aren't absorbed by water vapour.
For imaging the absorption/scattering is the least factor to consider. In (near) visible light you are using reflected sunlight so you need to consider how your target reflects. If the target reflects all wavelengths equally then you will see nothing ! Certain wavelengths are commonly used for crop survey for example because different plants (or the same plant ripening) reflects very differently. As you go to loner wavelengths (>8-10um) the majority of the signal comes thermal emission of the background so you will see little difference between different objects at the same temperature.