1. If and when future probe discovers considerable anisotropy at large scales, and that the clustering of masses are aligned to an arbitrary axis, what consequences does it have for the age of the universe (will it make it younger or older than it already is: current age is 13.799 billion years) and dark energy (will this give a bigger dark energy or smaller: current figures is about 70% of density of the universe)?

  2. Can we still calculate the spacetime geometry using general relativity in such a new cosmological theory in which we have anisotropy? The FLRW metric, upon which our current Lambda model of cosmology is based, assumes that the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic. So if these assumptions fails can we still calculate a metric and how so would it differ.

See the few last paragraphs of the following article for background. http://sci.esa.int/planck/51551-simple-but-challenging-the-universe-according-to-planck/

If we assume an open, accelerating and anisotropic universe, how will the Hubble parameter, Hubble constant, dark energy parameter and equation of state change?

  • $\begingroup$ Rather than making people click a link to figure out what you're talking about, it would be more preferred to have the relevant passages you question clipped directly into the post. $\endgroup$ – Kyle Kanos Jun 28 '17 at 11:13
  • $\begingroup$ This question is missing a good deal of context for it to be answerable within this format. I would recommend that you summarize the parts of the linked article that are relevant to your question, in a way that makes it self-contained. More importantly: what reasons do you have for thinking that an anisotropy would have consequences for the age of the universe, dark energy, or the validity of general relativity? Similarly: You ask "if anisotropy is considerable...". Is that question regarding the measured results, or a hypothetical on whether it were larger in future results? $\endgroup$ – Emilio Pisanty Jun 29 '17 at 13:45
  • $\begingroup$ According to the linked artice :"Planck's new image of the CMB suggests that some aspects of the standard model of cosmology may need a rethink, raising the possibility that the fabric of the cosmos, on the largest scales of the observable Universe, might be more complex than we think." Therefore it with regard to the measured results. The measured results is based on local scales. However, several discrepancies are noted on the largest scales to which the authors refer to and would need to be addressed when we can probe further. See next quote below: $\endgroup$ – Vick Jun 29 '17 at 14:15
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    $\begingroup$ I'm also not sure to what extent this question falls along the lines of "what would happen if we got some radical new results that contradicted much of known physics but which I'm only going to describe in the vaguest of terms", which is rather too speculative and too broad for our format. Would a feature measurement of large anisotropies require a re-think of GR, or just the cosmological model? ─ well, that would depend on the details of that measurement, wouldn't it? So there's no real way to tell. $\endgroup$ – Emilio Pisanty Jun 29 '17 at 16:29
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    $\begingroup$ As the question is now I think it's fine and have voted to reopen $\endgroup$ – John Rennie Jun 29 '17 at 17:16

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