I have been looking for a long while now for an explanation as to why the expansion of space does not apply on small scales. I have gone through StackExchange - specifically, this post - and Quora; however, none of the sources adequately answer the question, some saying that the model of expansion of space does not describe small-scale behaviour and others saying the expansion of space can be viewed as a 'force', which forces such as gravity and weak force easily overcome. The latter is not only ambiguous but also extremely counter-intuitive: take, for example, a situation with a moon orbiting a planet; as space expands, the distance from the moon to the planet increases linearly and the speed decreases linearly. However, since the gravitational 'force' decreases quadratically with increasing distance, the gravitational force decreases more quickly than the speed decreases. This means that, at some point, the moon's velocity will surpass the ever-decreasing escape velocity for its position and will fly off the planet's orbit into space. So, my ultimate questions are:
1. In what regard can the expansion of space be viewed as a force?
2. How does that explain the fact that the elementary forces are not affected, including the aforedescribed scenario?