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I couldn't find anywhere details of the thermal radiation of nuclei. I'd appreciate if you can direct me to a link/article where I can find answers to my many questions:

Consider a foil of metal (gold) in thermal equilibrium at room temperature 300 K,(let's suppose all nuclei emit same radiation ): if I am not wrong the frequency of the (average) radiation is 6.2*10^12 Hz, what is the KE of each nucleus? Does each one have to oscillate on the 3 axes or can there be nuclei oscillating only on one axis? Does a nucleus behave like an ideal spring? how do we find the max speed/ dislocation of the nuclei, since it seemes it depends on temperature?

But I have a more important and general question: if you make a single charge oscillate , say on the z-axis, in what direction will the MF/photon propagate? I cannot imagine a particular direction on the whole xy plane

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  • $\begingroup$ The nuclei do not move independently of each other, so thermal radiation cannot be pinned down to a single nucleus. Can you link the answer that suggests otherwise. $\endgroup$ May 23, 2017 at 5:20
  • $\begingroup$ @JohnRennie, thanks! each nucleus is influenced by others, yet it is a mini-antenna that radiates just a single frequency; the average of all individual frequencies then determines the body's temperature, isn't that right? Main questions are : 1)what is the frequency and how many photons does a single atom emit, and in what direction? 2) How is max speed/displacement related to frequency/speed/temp? $\endgroup$
    – user137879
    May 23, 2017 at 5:57
  • $\begingroup$ Hi Bob. Your description isn't true. The process you are describing is black body radiation. A search of this site will find many questions related to this. Black body radiation is produced by collective oscillations of the whole lattice not from oscillations of single nuclei. $\endgroup$ May 23, 2017 at 6:34
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    $\begingroup$ @JohnRennie ,Your description isn't true. The process you are describing is black body radiation. isn't any body a blackbody? what is the difference between them at 300K? I thought it is just a negligible difference in the frequency distribution, but isn't the radiating process of every single atom just the same? $\endgroup$
    – user137879
    May 23, 2017 at 10:49

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Nucleus radiates electron only during beta emissions. Only a few nuclei have a tendency to undergo beta emission that too during special conditions.

Due to a beta emission, the charge of the nuclei increases by one unit however the mass remains just the same pointing to the fact that the mass of an electron is negligible in comparison to the mass of a proton or neutron.

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  • $\begingroup$ Thanks, but I am enquiring after thermal radiation $\endgroup$
    – user137879
    May 23, 2017 at 5:15

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