I'm working on a class project, and have been struggling with this question for a little while. I am in chemistry, but was hoping I'd be able to find help here as I am pretty stuck on this question. I've been reading through my textbook and my notes, but I am not really finding anything.
The full question was, "What are the particles of matter composed of, how are they classified, and what explains the variety of particles we see?"
I am still working on my answer to the first two parts, but this is what I have so far:
"Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space, and all matter is made up of atoms. Atoms are the smallest unit of matter that retain all of the chemical properties of an element. An atom consists of three kinds of subatomic particles: electrons, protons, and neutrons. Neutrons and protons make up the nucleus, the center of the atom, and electrons surround the nucleus in an electron cloud. Atoms are classified by the number of protons and neutrons that are found in the nucleus.
The three states of matter are Solid, Liquid, and Gas. The particles of a solid have low kinetic energy, as they are packed tightly and therefore are unable to move around. Solids have a definite shape and volume. Particles in the liquid phase have more room to move around each other, and therefore have more kinetic energy than they would in the solid phase. Particles in a liquid are still close together, but are not being held in place. Liquids have a definite volume, but unlike solids, have an indefinite shape, because the particles have room to move around each other. Particles in the gaseous phase have high kinetic energy, because they have lots of space between them and therefore can move much more. When a gas isn’t being contained, its particles can and will spread out. If it is confined, it will expand to fill the space it is being contained in. Unlike liquids and solids, gas does not have both a definite shape and definite volume."
If there is anything I should add to my response to the first two parts, that would be extremely helpful as well.