I am studying introductory electricity and magnetism, and this is a conceptual question.
For an infinite conducting sheet, any excess charge is localized onto one side. There is no electric field in the interior of the surface or the other side. The reasoning, as I understand it, is that any such field that exists would cause movement of charge within the surface, and then the surface would not be at equilibrium. Thus, when applying Gauss' Law, the flux through the surface is taken to be 0. See this for what I mean: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/gausur.html#c3
However, if we were to treat the charges present on the one side of the surface as point charges (as is so often done when deriving an electric field for a surface using integration), Coulomb's Law means that those charges will exert an electrical force on any charged particle, even on the other side of the surface. Coulomb's Law for the attraction between two charges applies regardless of whether there is material between them, right? Won't this mean than if we held a positive point charge close to the other side of the infinite conducting sheet, it would feel a repulsion? This, then, would mean that the positive charges located on one side of the sheet DO generate an electric field that goes through the sheet to the other side, and that there IS an electric flux within the surface. What's wrong with this way of thinking?