What I understand by voltage in a circuit is that an electric field causes electrons to move from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. As it does so it converts its electrical potential energy into other forms of energy.
However I cannot understand why the amount of energy that a coulomb of charge loses in one loop around the circuit is constant regardless of the components in the circuit.
Also I do not understand how a charge seems to know how much energy per coulomb to convert at each component.
For example if you consider a circuit with a 3 volt battery and 1 A of current flows, through the circuit with one 3 ohm resistor in series, each coulomb of charge will convert 3 joules of electrical energy into other forms of energy at this resistor.
However, if there were two resistors the amount of electrical energy that each coulomb transfers at each resistor is different. This to me seems unintuitive.
Also if voltage is the amount of electrical potential energy a coulomb of charge that is converted as the coulomb of charge moves around the circuit, then surely, if components are introduced into the circuit no electrical potential energy can be used to be converted to other forms of energy at the components as all the electrical potential energy is already being used to push the charge around the circuit.
As you can probably tell I am very confused by the concept of voltage especially in circuits. Please could somebody explain to me what voltage is and how it can be understood in circuits.