I understand that a quantum leap to a higher energy orbital occurs when a photon, of enough energy, interacts with an electron but I am having trouble rationalizing the quantum leap to a lower energy orbital. The only explanation I've heard is in regard to the stability of the atom but this raised some questions to me such as what force draws the electron in and how is it controlled? What prevents the atom from collapsing in on itself? Is there a constant force exerted on an electron so as to maintain stability? What is the interaction between this force and the electron on the closest orbital?
Spontaneous processes tend toward the energy minimum, i.e. the ground state. An electron in an excited state will spontaneously fall to a lower-energy state, emitting that energy as a photon of light. I'm not sure if this behavior could be interpreted as driven by a force (I can't think of a reasonable connection there). I can tell you that we usually rationalize this behavior in terms of energy, and in that picture the quenching of the excited state via emission is a straightforward consequence of thermodynamic principles.