Imagine a grating with infinite number of slits, and the spacing D between slits is larger than the wavelength so that there are high order diffractions. In each of the diffraction directions the waves constructively interfere, but what decides the percentage of power that goes into each order?
My thinking is that each slit is a Huygens source, radiating cylindrical waves homogeneously in every direction, but due to interference, only those with constructive interference can exist. I guess the energy going into each order should be equal, which is not the case. So I am confused on how the light will distribute its energy to different orders. Thank you.