Why does the law of charge work at a fundamental level?
Physics doesn't have at the moment a theory on a subatomic level (below the level of virtual photons) describing how the interaction between charged particles works. Furthermore there aren’t any observations which detected any inner structure of these interactions.
The nearest working theory describes this interaction by the help of virtual photons. For physicist in universitary education this seems sometimes to be strange. For illustration here are some examples from this side:
Physical theories could follow observational facts or they could be developed from phenomena not described in a theory or not described satisfactory enough. The last is called deductive reasoning.
Since in physics it is allowed to build theories let us try in short to build one for charged particles. Following the Standard model we want to try to use particles again.
How many particles are needed
Only gravitational phenomena don't need more than one particle. A hypothetical graviton is enough to describe gravitation. For electromagnetic interactions are needed minimum two different types of particles. Let's call them p- and e-quanta.
Furthermore we could follow the model of electric and magnetic field lines. Such lines are of a steady behavior. To build field lines from only two types of constituents it is helpful to define - as long as no one finds an inconsistency in the developed hypothesis -a hypothetical conglomeration of these two particles, which we could call clusters. The clusters have to have an inner structure. But the inner structure is unknown to us and we don't care about this. The only two things we have to define is that
- the observed steadiness in field lines we reach by the thesis, that between the clusters in the chain of a field line the number of the quanta increases from cluster to cluster by exact two quanta, one e-quanta and one p-quanta
- clusters are polarized and could form or an electric dipole moment or a magnetic dipole moment.
Adding the hypothesis
- that such feld lines could unite only on the ends of the cluster chain and only with opposite sign and
- the chain of magnetic clusters are possible only in closed chains
we reached the completeness of our model.
Use of the quanta-cluster-hypothesis
It is well known that the charged particles electron and proton have both an electric field and a magnetic dipole moment. Furthermore it is fact that photons have an electric field component and a magnetic dipole moment too. Additional it's established that photons are emitted and absorbed by electrons and photons.
Following the above described model it's possible to understand more in detail
- the energy exchange between particles
- the bend of electric and magnetic field lines (there one field lien is cant be another)
- the interaction only of electrically opposite charged particles with energy release in the form of photons
- the non-influence of magnetic forces on the electric property of charges and of electric forces on the magnetic dipole moment of charges (but about the Lorentz force see here)
Advantages and predictions of a quanta-cluster model
- The model shows why particles and their antiparticles annihilate and why electron and proton don't (because of the clamed steadiness of the field lines)
- From the model could be shown the structure of photons
- A prediction of this model is that magnetic and electric fields displace each other due to the fundamental understanding that where a body is a second can't be and the application of this to clusters.
No one can prevent nor prohibit thinking about these or other models. In science, models are right up to the detection of inconsistencies. The non-observation of the quanta of the model follows the tradition of postulating the atoms (ἄτομος indivisible) by the ancient Greeks, postulating the antiparticles, or postulating the Higgs-particle.