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I am writing a little article about thought experiments through the history of physics (university level); more specifically, from the times of Thales of Miletus (~ ancient Greeks) to our day. I want to cover as many as possible of them, and not just stick to the most famous ones as those of Einstein (for example).
I should point out that I have already searched on the internet (including this site), and already got a good number of them; but I want to be sure I have not overlooked any interesting thought experiment.

So my question is, does anybody know about any thought experiments that are not commonly known (even for a physics grad student with access to Google)? Thanks in advance!

Edit: Ok, main question could be too broad so I'll be more precise:

Do you know about any thought experiments (in physics) dated from before those of Galileo?

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closed as too broad by ACuriousMind Mar 23 '17 at 23:11

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

  • $\begingroup$ I'm afraid you're asking for an open-ended list of examples with no single correct answer, which is off-topic as too broad here. $\endgroup$ – ACuriousMind Mar 23 '17 at 23:12
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    $\begingroup$ Atomistic theory from the old Greeks. Amazing that they came to the conclusion that a smallest piece of something has to exist. You bring me to an idea. Wouldn't it be more interesting to investigate which thought experiments are grandiosely failed? $\endgroup$ – HolgerFiedler Mar 24 '17 at 5:19