I know the fact that protons don't have the mobile ability like electrons to move freely because they are bounded to the nuclei due to the $VW$ forces apparent in the object but I've read that there exists positive charges that do move especially in a solid.
I'm confused as to how is it possible since if positive charges do move, wouldn't it alter the state or structure of a material.
One example that positive charges move is that of the electroscope experiment. When a negatively charged object is placed near the dome of the electroscope, the positive charges are attracted to the "negative charge" of the object and the electrons in the electroscope repel each other and we experience repulsion in the foils of an electroscope and when a positively charged object is placed near the dome, the same thing happens. In this situation, we see that positive charges do move.
How is this possible? Wouldn't we be able to observe an altered structure of the electroscope if this happens?
Also, are positive charges the protons itself or are they different?