An object is visible to us when it reflects some light and this light is recognized by our retina. My doubt is: are reflection and refraction both different phenomena or are they related to each other? Like is reflection the result of refraction? I mean the light which is incident on a surface is absorbed, its photons are taken by the electrons of the material and the get excited. These electrons again get de excited and emit out the light Is this itself the light reflected by the surface? Does this mean that the light reflected is the same as the light emitted? are both of these the same? If not then what is the light that is reflected? How can we explain the phenomenon of reflection?
Both phenomena reflection and refraction have their origin in electrons osculating when light is incident on it. The oscillating electrons in turn are a source of light. The emitted light has the same frequency as incident light. (conservation of photon energy). This is true for both the refracted light and reflected light. You can have reflection but no refraction as for example from a plane mirror. If you call reflection as light going back into the media from which it is coming then at the interface between two media part of the light is reflected back and part is transmitted into another media (refracted). However there is what is called as the Brewster angle at which one component of polarized light is totally reflected whereas the other component of polarized light is completely refracted.
To answer you question, no, reflection is not a result of refraction.
Considering light to be an EM wave, when this wave is incident on any material it induces oscillations primarily in electrons. Now these particles on oscillating radiate energy in the form of a small secondary wave in all directions.
These small waves add up to give reflection and/or refraction (generally both). Which will be dominant is completely dependent on the surface the light was incident on