I know how to solve Laplace's equation for a point charge in front of a grounded conducting infinite plane. But I want to know what happens (both physics and math) when the infinite conducting plane isn't grounded, or is connected to a potential V.
If the problem you're trying to solve only contains one point charge and the conducting infinite plane at potential V, then there is no physical difference between the plane's potential being 0 (grounded) or +V, because the electric potential may be globally shifted by a constant value everywhere...
If you would like to define V at infinity as zero and the conducting plane as not grounded, you can also think of the solution as a superposition of two different elctrostatic cases: Take the fields expression of a single charge and a grounded plane, and sum this with the fields given off by a plane of fixed potential.
I also think that there would be a difference between the two situations. Lets take a non-grounded PEC plane and say a positive charge lies above it. The field created by the charge will induce negative charges to be stacked on the top (towards the positive charge) of the PEC, and since there is no creation nor destruction of charge, the same and opposite charge will be induced on the bottom surface of the PEC. In this way, treating the thickness of the PEC as infinitely small, both induced surface charges cancel each other over large distances, as seen by the positive charge. In this way, nothing changes in respect to the field generated around the positive charge (since the PEC as no total charge). Though, if the PEC is grounded, it acts like an infinite source of charges that can be arranged in any way, dictated by the surrounding charges. So the positive charge induces an electric field on the upper surface of the grounded PEC, BUT no charge on the lower surface since charge must not be conserved in this situation (that is what ground means!). We are then left with a charge that as electric field lines pointing towards the PEC, all coming at right angles with the latter. This situation is exactly equal to a dipole made of the same positive charge, and a equal negative charge situated an equal distance normal to the PEC.