How do rays of light getting focused at a point create an image?
How are the information of object's shape and dimensions expressed as an image when light rays converge?
Is it understandable by solving wave equation for light?
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A set of rays focusing at one point form an image of only one point. For example, the red incident rays originating from the point $A$ of the object meet at $A'$ on the image side. The red rays originate from a point and form an image of just one point. Similarly, the yellow and the blue rays form the images of their corresponding points.
The red, yellow and blue rays together from the three points of the image. There are countless number of such sets of rays which together form the entire image.
When they say it forms an image, that does not mean you percieve an image at that point. You need to place a screen there to view the image or if you place yourself at the focal point you will see the image in the mirror.