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Basically, a plastic rod (an insulator) won't be able to receive charges from a charged conductor, but if I charge this rod by friction and then make it touch my hand, will my hand get charged? If so it does, does this mean that insulators can't receive a charge, but can send a charge out of it?

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An insulator cannot propagate a charge through its lattice . Look at

enter image description here

The surface of an insulator, depending on the material, can give up an electron, thus becoming positively charge, or accept an electron at an empty energy level and thus become negatively charged.

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An insulator can receive and release a flow of electricity. A classic experiment is to charge a rod by rubbing with fur. One charged the insulator can emit an electrostatic discharge (ESD). There typically isn't a lot of current, but the voltage can be thousands of volts. When vacuum tubes were being used they used so much current that such a tiny current pulse was insignificant. But with modern transistors an ESD has more than enough power to destroy the transistors. So transistor devices have to be designed to avoid ESD damage.

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