I am a bit confused with the movement of positive charges. I have been told that the positive charges do not move, and the only things that move are electrons. If this is the case, what happens if the positive charge is attracted to a negative charged? Also how does a positive charge move in an electric field?
I think there are two situations here. If a positively charged object, like a proton, is in an electric field, it will be pushed by the field and move. On the other hand, in an atom, even though electrons and protons both experience a force toward each other, the electron moves a lot more because it is much, much lighter than the proton.
I have been told that the positive charges do not move, and the only things that move are electrons.
In the vast majority of solid conductors (like metals) this is correct. In other situations, this is not true.
In metals, the atoms are held in place by chemical (electron) bonds. So the nucleus and its positive charge, and most of the electrons are fixed in place. A small proportion of the electrons are free to move though. So an electric field in a metal will cause some electrons to move.
If you had positive charges that weren't bound together (ions in solution, ions in plasma, etc.) then they will move in response to an electric field.
If this is the case, what happens if the positive charge is attracted to a negative charged?
I don't understand this question. Opposite charges do attract each other. But that doesn't mean motion is always possible.