We know that a bubble has only one interface in water. When it comes out from the surface, an extra interface of water-air is formed.

We know that energy required to create a surface is given by:

$E = T\Delta A$

where $T$ is the surface tension of the liquid and $A$ is the area of the surface.

So at low enough temperatures, would it be impossible for bubbles to come out of the surface?


1 Answer 1


Yes it does cost energy for a bubble to emerge through the air-water interface, and as you say that energy is just the surface tension times the extrenal area of the bubble.

However as the bubble rises its gravitational potential energy decreases and this change in the gravitational potential energy is usually large enough to push the bubble through the surface and into the air.


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