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Consider a sample of liquid with a high temperature. I've read that some particles in the liquid with high enough energy will break their bond with the other molecules of the liquid and therefore become a gas. The average kinetic energy of the particles is lower, therefore the temperature is lower.

Since the temperature of the liquid is now lower, can we say that it has lost heat energy, if so what was the heat energy transferred to. Or is it the case that the heat energy is not transferred into any other form,, it just moves into the surrounding area.

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Yes, the temperature of the liquid goes down. It is easy to see that since energy is always conserved, when two or more particles collide, there is a redistribution of energy. If one of the colliding particles gets enough energy, it leaves the system. So the energy of the system decreases. This is the principle used in cooling of water in mud pots.The evaporating water molecules take away the heat from water within and evaporate through the pores of the pot. This cools the water in the pot.

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