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When white light falls on a blue surface, it reflects only blue and absorbs all other wavelengths. In fact blue is also first absorbed and then re emitted. But why other wavelengths are not re emitted? Does that blue surface stores the energy of other colors in itself forever?

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Please keep in mind that color is not in one to one relation with the frequencies of light, which is what physics studies . Only the rainbow colors have a one to one correspondence with a frequency spectrum,

When white light falls on a blue surface, it reflects only blue and absorbs all other wavelengths.

The blue, may be of a single frequency but it could be a combination of frequencies

In fact blue is also first absorbed and then re emitted.

For physics reason, let us assume the blue is of the specific frequency of the spectrum. The reflected photons that make up the light have interacted elastically with the fields of the atoms making the blue surface, were not absorbed.

But why other wavelengths are not re emitted?

The other colors are absorbed by raising the atoms of the surface to higher energy levels, and it depends on the material how the atoms will deexcite. In general since the new photons will radiate in a 360degree range in theta and phi, , and not reflect, in the end with subsequent absorptions, it will be below the detection ability of the eye; their energy will turn to heat of the material ( as a blue car in the sun gets hot).

Does that blue surface stores the energy of other colors in itself forever?

No, there is a continuous radiation of all bodies , black body radiation, and surfaces and bodies cool.

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  • $\begingroup$ when an electronic transition occurs from lower to higher state by the absorption of photon, will that electron not fall to the previous state instantly for stability? $\endgroup$ – rock Jan 22 '17 at 11:29
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    $\begingroup$ No, there is a lifetime given by the particular solution of the quantum mechanical equation for the atom. As I said even if it falls back to the original state the photon will have a (theta, phi) 360 degrees probability and the intensity falls. Deexcitation could also be a cascade, if there exist intermediate energy levels. $\endgroup$ – anna v Jan 22 '17 at 11:49

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