For a long time, Wikipedia has said that the loudest possible sound is 191 dB SPL, as this corresponds to 1 atmosphere of pressure peak-to-peak, and anything above this would be clipped at vacuum on the negative peaks, and is therefore classed as a "shockwave" rather than "sound". (Though Wikipedia also defines a shock wave as a wave moving faster than the speed of sound, regardless of amplitude.)
It gives no references, however, and I've since learned that pressure waves in air are always non-linear, and the science of acoustics assumes linearity and small pressure levels to simplify calculations. So the air will already be distorted before this pressure level.
So is there a commonly-held definition of when distortion becomes too great to consider a wave "sound"? At what dB SPL is it? Is it possible to calculate the amplitude that a sine wave in air would be distorted by 1% THD, for instance?