Let's just say you run a 5V current from the battery into a circuit. From what I understand, this means that I am essentially pushing high potential electrons into the circuit. These electrons would be able to do work through a resistor like a bulb by dropping from higher potential to lower potential and thus transferring energy to the bulb in terms of light, heat, whatever... so far so good. The problem comes in when I read in the textbook about capacitance.
First problem comes in when I read that if I connect a higher volt battery - let's say 10V, I will get more charge. I thought it would be the same amount of charge (group of electrons) but this charge would be at higher potential. Is there a principle here that I am missing that says something about higher potential electrons and increasing the number of them?
I understand you can increase the capacitance of a capacitor by increasing the area, having a good material between the plates or decreasing the distance between two plates. Does this mean the potential difference you can create between the two plates can be bigger than 5V that are originally supplied, so a capacitor in itself is becoming some sort of battery (not in chemical reaction creating higher potential sense) but some sort of a source for creating voltage, higher or lower than originally supplied?
How does the capacitor discharge this net voltage between the plates? One side of the plate is supplied with extra high potential electrons creating a net negative charge and the other side has repelled regular electrons creating a net positive charge. This creates an electric field and the distance between them creates a potential (voltage). But how exactly can this be passed on through the current? The higher potential electrons are all on the other side of the plate, so who exactly transfers this energy (carried out by high potential electrons) if there are not high potential electrons on the other side of the plate to begin with? I am visualizing all this in my mind and textbook is of no help whatsoever.. Thanks for taking the time to read this lengthy post...