This Question may seem simple at first sight, however I've been thinking quite a bit about it lately and can't get to a solution.
This is where I'm at:
An Atom is made up of Protons, Neutrons and Electrones. The Nucleus consists of Protons and Neutrons. The Electrones are distributed on the shells and move freely on that shell.
Due to the fact, that they(Electrons) have the same charge, they repel each other.
Am I right so far, or am I missing the point?
Anyway, here's what I'm thinking:
The Electrons have to have the same distance to all the other electrons, because otherwise, one would be slowed down by the magnetic field of the one in front of it.
If an electrone is slowed down, it gets closer to the core of the atom.
This works perfectly fine on the first shell, there are 2 Electrons, which are then always on the opposit side of one another.
However if you'd go on the next shell, things become more interessting: Now there are 6 Electrones. The only way to distribute the Electrons evenly on the Atom, so that all can move with the same speed and the same distance to eachother, is to put them all in the same orbit moving at the same speed in the same direction. This brings the problem that all electrones are relatively close to eachother and a large parts of the Atom is not "orbited" by electrones, also, they would probably reject each other.
In this case there is the following problem: when all Atoms are evenly distributed around the core (imagine like satelites around the earth) with everyone having the same distance to it's neighbours. you encounter a new problem. - You can't move the electrones in any directions without:
- Changeing the distance between the electrones (bringing them closer together and therefore having them to push eachother of their orbit)
- Keeping the distance but having a weired orbit (for example if earth were the nucleus) having one going around the equator and having one only hovering over the northpole) that one would have to withstand the magnetic pull, but with noforce pulling it out.
- they are constantly changing shells and pushing eachother around (however this would lead to slowing eachother down until the atom collapses) also there would currentl't be a chance to assign a number of electrons to a particular shell. And a very instable Atom.
I can't explain (to me) how they can symontaniously be evenly distributed and moving at the same speed? How is this possible?
How can an Atom be stable and not collapsing?
Somehow I cant understand, how the electrones are on the atom distributed.
I'm not looking for a lecture about how the atom is built and infos about the shell-system, but rather how the distribution of the Electrons around the Atom in motion look like. I would have added images to further explain my point, but I'm new and can't do so yet.