Photons have a wave function that carries the electric and magnetic field information which is a solution of the quantized Maxwell's equation. Thus there exist phases between photons and the superposition is again a wavefunction which macroscopically builds the electric and magnetic fields. Lubos Motl has a blog entry on how this happens at a QFT level.
When a photon hits a boundary condition , three things can happen: a) it can scatter elastically, which means it retains its frequency but changes angle, b)it can scatter inelastically, which means it changes frequency, or c) it can be absorbed raising the energy level of an electron ( in a lattice, in a molecule, in an atom) and a different photon is emitted and phases are lost.
For a reflective surface where images are retained a) happens: all phases in the emergent ensemble of photons are intact.
For an opaque surface c) happens
For a transparent lattice it is still a). The photon interacts elastically with the lattice, phases through the ensemble are kept coherent and thus we see through glass. It is a "photon + lattice" scattering at an individual level, but for a medium to be transparent the emergent ensemble of photons must retain coherence. Phases change coherently in the quantum mechanical solution, otherwise there would be no transparency
In a diamond there are reflective surfaces that back scatter part of the light , images are distorted but still phase information is coherent.
b) is the case where colors change if the scattering is with the whole lattice and phase coherence can be kept.