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This question is similar to one asked if virtual electrons exist outside the nucleus, but please note, my question says virtual particles. It is not a duplicate. I read so often that matter is mostly empty space and the electron is some fantastically large distance from the nucleus that matter is mostly empty space. We know there is actually an electron cloud that fills the nucleus that reflects the probability of finding the electron. Are there virtual particles and anti particles popping in and out of existence in any of the spaces surrounding the nucleus? The same ones that produce the energy of the vacuum. I ask because there many textbooks that insist we are all mostly made of empty space since there is so much of it surrounding a nucleus.