I can't give you a better answer than is on Solar Prominances and CMEs Wikipedia.
A prominence is a large, bright, gaseous feature extending outward from the Sun's surface, often in a loop shape. Prominences are anchored to the Sun's surface in the photosphere, and extend outwards into the Sun's corona. While the corona consists of extremely hot ionized gases, known as plasma, which do not emit much visible light, prominences contain much cooler plasma, similar in composition to that of the chromosphere. The prominence plasma is typically a hundred times cooler and denser than the coronal plasma. A prominence forms over timescales of about a day and may persist in the corona for several weeks or months, looping hundreds of thousands of miles into space. Some prominences break apart and may then give rise to coronal mass ejections. Scientists are currently researching how and why prominences are formed.
The red-glowing looped material is plasma, a hot gas composed of electrically charged hydrogen and helium. The prominence plasma flows along a tangled and twisted structure of magnetic fields generated by the sun’s internal dynamo. An erupting prominence occurs when such a structure becomes unstable and bursts outward, releasing the plasma.
Source: Solar Prominance
As far as the solar wind is concerned:
And another question: is the aurora borealis the result of regular solar wind emission, or caused by coronal mass ejections? I'm wondering because I read that solar wind can bypass the earths magnetosphere (as it is non-magnetic) while Coronal mass ejections usually can't, but I read and heard both!
Coronal mass ejections might or might not affect us, it depends on which way they are aimed. The solar wind is composed of charged particles , and that's why it can interact with Earth's magnetic field. Reading all 3 links on this page will explain better than I can.
The aurora borealis (and the south pole version) is caused by the solar wind and again, the concise explanation is given by Wikipedia:
Auroras are produced when the magnetosphere is sufficiently disturbed by the solar wind that the trajectories of charged particles in both solar wind and magnetospheric plasma, mainly in the form of electrons and protons, precipitate them into the upper atmosphere (thermosphere/exosphere), where their energy is lost. The resulting ionization and excitation of atmospheric constituents emits light of varying colour and complexity.