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Can it be possible that there is no effect come from the "electron sea" because of there is no net electron flow, or that flow creates a fuzziness in results?

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    $\begingroup$ Whilst this is not my field, I'm pretty sure that metal electron "seas" result in definite structure in x-ray diffraction patterns because the wavefunctions of the delocalized electrons have definite, periodic structure. "Sea" is an often used, but probably misleading word. $\endgroup$ – WetSavannaAnimal Nov 13 '16 at 23:14
  • $\begingroup$ Indeed, as @WetSavannaAnimalakaRodVance says, the sea is electrons in Bloch states that satisfy the requirements of the underlying lattice. $\endgroup$ – Jon Custer Nov 14 '16 at 0:00
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Electrons in metals are described quantum mechanically by Bloch waves $$\psi(\vec r)=u_{\vec k}(\vec r)\exp{i(\vec k·\vec r)}$$ where $u_{\vec k}(\vec r)=u_{\vec k}(\vec r+\vec R)$, $\vec R$ is a lattice vector, has the periodicity of the crystal lattice. Therefore, the location probability of the electrons and thus their average density is given by $$ \psi^*(\vec r)·\psi(\vec r)=|\psi(\vec r+\vec R)|^2$$ has also the periodicity of the lattice. Thus x-ray scattering from electrons in a metal including from conduction electrons is determined by the lattice structure.

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