I'm seeking to compile a list of all atomic (or otherwise) species with which Bose-Einstein condensation has been experimentally achieved.

So far, I've collected

  • photons (Klaers 2010)
  • excitons (Dai 2011)
  • polaritons (Kasprzak 2006)
  • helium (atoms: Santos 2001, molecules: Zwierlein 2003)
  • sodium (Davis 1995)
  • rubidium (Anderson 1995)
  • strontium (Stellmer 2010)
  • calcium (Kraft 2009)
  • lithium (Bradley 1997)
  • cesium (Weber 2003)
  • hydrogen (Fried 1998)
  • chromium (Griesmaier 2005)
  • potassium (Modugno 2001)

What am I missing?


Nice collection.

As far as I noticed you are also missing Erbium (10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.210401) and Dysprosium (10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.190401).

Indeed it might also be interesting to include the isotopes and perhaps degenerate Fermi gasses. I once saw a periodic table with the achieved degenerate gasses in a talk, which was quite interesting to look at, but am unfortunately not able to find it.


Nice list!

Counting different atoms, the only new one I was able to find is Ytterbium (not sure if the reference is the first). You might also want to count different isotopes, a list is given e.g. here.

It seems that you have considered nonequilibrium condensation as well. In that case, magnons should be added to the list. Not sure how well established, but one might want to count in phonons, too.


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