Noether's theorem is a statement about classical field theory. The "conserved quantity* being just a function of the fields is a classical field theoretical statement. And it is only in classical field theory that you should think of the fields encoding the state of the world.
In quantum field theory, the fields are no longer assingments of numbers to spacetime points, they are assignments of operators to spacetime points (or regions, really), and those operators act on the state of space. This state of space is distinct from the space of possible configurations of the fields, that is, in quantum field theory, the fields do not encode the state of the world. This is crucial, and why statements like "the energy is in the field" make sense classically (because the field really is what we encode a state with a certain energy in), but are non-sensical quantum mechanically. It's not so much that it is a false statement, it's not even wrong, it just doesn't even begin to be a meaningful statement in quantum field theory that could be true or false.
The quantum analogon to Noether's theorem are the so-called Ward-Takahashi identities, basically stating that up to certain singular terms, the classical conservation equations of Noether's theorem hold within expectation values. That is, if you take the classically conserved expression that is now an operator on all states and not a function of a state itself and take its expectation value with respect to a particular state (to make it into a simple number that's a function of a particular state again), then you'll find it still fulfills the conservation equation (up to those singular terms I don't want to discuss here).
So, in the end, the energy, or whatever else, is "in the state". But a quantum state is an elusive object not amenable to our intuition. In ordinary QM, you might represent it as a wavefunction - the state itself is a function of all of space. In QFT, the dynamical variables are not just spatial position, but field themselves dependent on spacetime. So the analogon of the wavefunction is a so-called wave-functional, a complex-valued function of the fields. Just like the position in QM was not the state, and the energy is not "in the position", so are the fields not the same as the state, and the energy is not "in the fields". It's in the quantum state, of which I am afraid you will not get any concrete or intuitive description.
As for where the properties of the muon come from - they indeed come from the muon field, because to each field, we associate a range of particle states that it can more or less "create". But without the electromagnetic field there is no notion of charge, and without the weak field no notion of hypercharge, so the properties of the particle states created by a field also depend on the other fields present in our theory. Except for mass, to some extent: "Spacetime curvature" does not exist in standard QFT, QFT is special relativistic, not general relativistic. Mass is simply a property of each field/particle itself, although it might get modified through interactions.