And to add to @Orion's perfect answer:
A) charge is a fundamental property of an elementary particle, it may be +1, -1, or 0, in natural units with the electron denoted as -1, or -e, except for quarks which come as -1/3's or +2/3's. Charge is fundamental in the same way that mass is, each elementary particle has some value of each (and also of spin).
B) the quarks that Orion mentions for the proton are two up (u) quarks (at 2/3 each, and one down (d) quark at -1/3, making the total the 1 value of positive charge, or +e.
C) there are 6 quark types, including the u and d, and they make up the protons, neutrons, antiprotons, mesons etc. They are held together by gluons, which have no charge. Gluons and quarks, and quarks with each other, interact through the strong nuclear force. Quarks also have electromagnetic interactions with each other since they have charge. The proton, made up of 3 quarks, is an extremely stable configuration. That's why the universe is full of them. They are in every atom.
D) Electrons are fundamental particles, not composed of anything more basic, at least up to the energies we've been able to explore.
E) There are other fundamental particles, see the Wikipedia article about quarks and a table of the fundamental particles of the Stabdard Model, the current understanding of fundamental particles in physics. See at https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quark
F) The charge has one and only one effect: it is responsible for the electromagnetic force, with electrostatic meaning charges at rest and thus no magnetic field, only electric. You'll get more in your course or later.