An argument has been made that if a space station in deep space where it is not affected by any significant gravity from nearby heavenly bodies could exert enough centrifugal force to simulate gravity if it was 980 meters long and rotating at 0.01 rads per second. This would be a huge undertaking to construct a vehicle of this magnitude. However, the 2nd argument was made that if an astronaut in such a vehicle was to accelerate in a counter direction to the exact rotation of the vehicle that he could negate the effect of centrifugal force of the floor below him and thus return to a weightless state. The counter argument is that he would still be part of the system of centrifugal forces acting upon him regardless of his movement until he decouples himself from the space station. What are your thoughts on these scenarios?
Centrifugal force isn't a real force it's a psuedo-force resulting from inertia. The force acting on the astronaut will be the physical space station pushing him along it's path. If the astronaut has another force applied to him such that he does not touch the space station, then the space station will not impart a force on him.
g is a constant acceleration exerted on a body. If you are accelerated to fall at a particular velocity, you will feel the g or impact on you until you attain that particular velocity. This makes g something fundamental.
Centrifugal and centripetal forces are felt under gravity alone. You are forced to attain velocities in two directions--one due to g downwards and another due to spinning; since we are concealed we feel it like cg and cp force.