I'm wondering whether installing solar panels on a sloped home rooftop would have a net positive or negative effect on the heat radiating into a home from sunlight on the roof.
Panels are generally black, so presumably they have a very low albedo - lower than the shingles beneath - and heat up more than the roof would without the panels. But they also convert some of the solar radiation directly to electricity, so that subtracts from the heat produced. They're also set off a few inches from the rooftop, so there should generally be airflow between the panel and shingles, and with a sloped rooftop, convection should bring in cooler air.
Assume that it's summer, so the primary electrical load is for cooling (A/C) and any radiative heating from the roof to the house is undesirable.
Under what range of assumptions would the net heat flow to the house be greater than it would be without the panels installed?