# $\beta^-$-decay and down quark being heavier than up quark

At the fundamental level, $\beta^-$-decay is: $$d \to u + e^- + \overline {\nu_e}$$ and this decay occurs spontaneously.

From spontaneousness and mass-energy equivalence, can I say that down quark is heavier(rest mass, current quark mass) than up quark? Or is there other factors involved?

This means you cannot simply treat the down quark in isolation from everything else. For example the difference in mass between the neutron and proton, $\approx 1.3$MeV, is about half the difference in mass between the down and up quarks $\approx 2.5$MeV so changes in the interaction energies are also involved in beta decay.
So all you can say is the the total masses and interaction energies in the neutron are greater (by $1.3$MeV) than the proton, and this 1.3Mev difference goes into the rest masses and kinetic energies of the electron and anti-neutrino produced by the beta decay.