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Which recent (i.e. Jan-midFeb 2012) papers and preprint do you consider really worth reading?

References should be followed by a summary saying what is the result and (implicitly or explicitly) why it is important/interesting/insightful/...

One paper per answer (and start from its citation); you can add further but only in the description (e.g. It generalizes the ides of X in [cite]...).

As it is a community wiki - vote whenever you consider a paper good. Also - feel free to contribute to other's posts.

See Journal club-like thing for a meta post.

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    $\begingroup$ This answer does not fit the format specified, so feel free to remove. I'd just like to point out that there is a place to share and discuss recent papers posted to the quant-ph arXiv at reddit.com/r/quantph $\endgroup$ – Matthew Matic Feb 16 '12 at 10:58
  • $\begingroup$ @James I changed it into a comment. Thanks for link (I knew SciRate ['] but not this; BTW: also one can have RSS and g+ it); however, the philosophy behind this post is different - more selecting and introducing a paper to others than just voting and commenting. $\endgroup$ – Piotr Migdal Feb 16 '12 at 11:50
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Light-cone-like spreading of correlations in a quantum many-body system reports the first measurements of the speed at which quantum correlations spread in a quantum many-body system. Prior related theoretical works are [2,3,4]. Though the main innovations are plausibly the experimental techniques, I think theorists should be aware of the results.

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http://arxiv.org/abs/1201.4390

The Operator Tensor Formulation of Quantum Theory

Lucien Hardy

A formal but I think pedagogical presentation of a formulation of Quantum Mechanics successfully used by Lucien Hardy. The tensor formulation makes intense use of Penroseā€™s diagrammatic notation, adapted to quantum operators. The quantum processes are viewed as circuits, in a way which decouples them from the time evolution. Many interesting quantum phenomena become by this visible, so I think this formulation should be part of the toolbox of anyone interested in the foundations of QM.

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http://arxiv.org/abs/1202.2274

Quantum Einstein Gravity

Martin Reuter, Frank Saueressig

A pedagogical but detailed review of the asymptotic safety program in Quantum Einstein Gravity.

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http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v108/i7/e070402

Procedure for Direct Measurement of General Quantum States Using Weak Measurement

Jeff S. Lundeen and Charles Bamber

Arxiv version: http://arxiv.org/abs/1112.5471

By combining weak and strong measurements on complementary observables, on identically prepared ensembles, the real and complex parts of the uncollapsed wavefunction are obtained. This is a simpler and more direct alternative to Quantum State Tomography, but unlike the latter, it works only with pure states.

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http://arxiv.org/abs/1202.0631

Quantum Cheshire Cats

Yakir Aharonov, Sandu Popescu, Paul Skrzypczyk

Another quantum paradox a la Aharonov, a pre and post-selected experiment which separates the photon (cat) from its circular polarization (smile).

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http://arxiv.org/abs/1201.4276

Dream-land with Classic Higgs field, Dimensional Reduction and all that

D. V. Shirkov

A summary/continuation of the work of D. V. Shirkov and its collaborators in the regularization by dimensional reduction, as an alternative to the Higgs boson in the standard model.

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