Every measurement compares "something" (the thing to be measured) with "something else" (a standard). Since there are only a handful of true standards in physics, and everything else is derived from that, nearly every measurement involves a series of steps that help you find the relationship between the quantity of interest, and the fundamental constants.
Let's take velocity. It is expressed in meters per second. Today, [the meter is defined as]
The length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second
While the second is defined as
The duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom.
Everything else that relates to the measurement of either distance, or time, has to somehow go back to that definition.
Now let us assume that a police car has a well calibrated (traceable to NIST standards) speedometer. If you are trucking along the highway at 153 km/h (illegal in many countries), that police car could drive behind you until the distance between you and it does not change (perhaps using a LIDAR to measure the distance, and find it is constant). At that point, the policeman can confidently say you were going 153 km/h without measuring either distance, or time.
How, then, would that calibrated speedometer come into being? That calibration might involve measuring the speed of the car a number of times, and recording distance and time.
In the end, all measurement is a comparison. It's just a question of what the units are of the thing you are comparing with - and whether that allows a "direct" or an "indirect" measurement.