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So, I am not taking physics in school, but I do have an interest in it, and I was wondering, in the standard model, all of the force carrying particles (photons, Z Bosons, W Bosons, gluons, and (hypothetical) gravitons) give a separate type of force. Those being the electromagnetic force, the weak nuclear force, the strong nuclear force and gravity. What my question is, is how do these particles give their force and why do they give different forces? What differences are between the particles that they give different forces? For example why does a photon give the electromagnetic force while a gluon gives the strong nuclear force? I am not asking why particles carry force, I am asking about how they give that force to other particles.

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    $\begingroup$ I think this is too broad to be usefully answered here. The details of the force carrying particle are described by a local gauge symmetry, and there are different symmetries for the different forces. But then we'd have to start explaining what a gauge symmetry is and it all gets a bit involved. $\endgroup$ – John Rennie Jul 12 '16 at 15:50
  • $\begingroup$ @JohnRennie: well, you can do some phenomenological handwaving using the properties of the particles (the implications of photons being massless, gluons carrying charge and thus sticking together, ...) $\endgroup$ – Christoph Jul 12 '16 at 16:15
  • $\begingroup$ I agree with @John, this does seem to be too broad, although I think it's basically centered on the linked duplicate. I think there's a good question to be asked on this topic somewhere in there, it will just need a bit of focusing. Dylan, maybe we can help you edit the question to improve it (after which it can be reopened). $\endgroup$ – David Z Jul 12 '16 at 16:26