So, I am not taking physics in school, but I do have an interest in it, and I was wondering, in the standard model, all of the force carrying particles (photons, Z Bosons, W Bosons, gluons, and (hypothetical) gravitons) give a separate type of force. Those being the electromagnetic force, the weak nuclear force, the strong nuclear force and gravity. What my question is, is how do these particles give their force and why do they give different forces? What differences are between the particles that they give different forces? For example why does a photon give the electromagnetic force while a gluon gives the strong nuclear force? I am not asking why particles carry force, I am asking about how they give that force to other particles.